Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities.  Fish from fish farms and catch constitutes the second largest (behind oil/natural gas) export product measured in value. For periods there could be peace, before a lesser son allied himself with a chieftain and started a new conflict. The Baháʼí Faith religion has slightly more than 1,000 adherents. , Of the 98 airports in Norway, 52 are public, and 46 are operated by the state-owned Avinor. Magnus Carlsen is the current world champion. Skjåk in Oppland county is also in the rain shadow and is one of the driest places with 278 millimetres (10.9 inches) precipitation annually. Oslo’s old town was established with the urban structure around the year 1000 and was the capital of Norway’s dominion in 1314. Dollars and U.S. = 100.  Until around 1800, inhabitants of Western Norway were referred to as nordmenn (northmen) while inhabitants of Eastern Norway were referred to as austmenn (eastmen). The attraction and the film ceased their operations on 5 October 2014. In 2014–2015 polling, football ranked far behind biathlon and cross-country skiing in terms of popularity as spectator sports. capital of Norway: 1 n the capital and largest city of Norway; the country's main port; located at the head of a fjord on Norway's southern coast Synonyms: Christiania , Oslo Example of: port a place (seaport or airport) where people and merchandise can enter or leave a country national capital the capital city of … Johan Christian Dahl (1788–1857), originally from the Dresden school, eventually returned to paint the landscapes of western Norway, defining Norwegian painting for the first time.  Norway shares a 1,619-kilometre (1,006 mi) land border with Sweden, 727 kilometres (452 mi) with Finland, and 196 kilometres (122 mi) with Russia to the east. Prominent academics include Arne Næss, a philosopher and founder of deep ecology; Johan Galtung, the founder of peace studies; Nils Christie and Thomas Mathiesen, criminologists; Fredrik Barth, a social anthropologist; Vilhelm Aubert, Harriet Holter and Erik Grønseth, sociologists; Tove Stang Dahl, a pioneer of women's law; Stein Rokkan, a political scientist; and economists Ragnar Frisch, Trygve Haavelmo, and Finn E. Kydland. I am absolutely fascinated by this historical information!  In 1397, under Margaret I, the Kalmar Union was created between the three Scandinavian countries. In the 20th century, Norwegian academics have been pioneering in many social sciences, including criminology, sociology and peace and conflict studies. Dried cod and fish oil from Lofoten were traded with many hard-to-find goods coming the other way. , The country has the fourth-highest per-capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. Oslo today, but the history of the title is a fascinating story. ", "Country Comparison: Distribution of Family Income – GINI Index", "EØS-loven – EØSl. The counties are administered through directly elected county assemblies who elect the County Governor. Both are used in public administration, schools, churches, and media.  According to Reuters, Oslo is the "fastest growing city in Europe because of increased immigration". Many Norwegians and persons of Norwegian descent joined the Allied forces as well as the Free Norwegian Forces. The culture is named after the village of Ahrensburg, 25 km (15.53 mi) north-east of Hamburg in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein, where wooden arrow shafts and clubs have been excavated. High tithes to church made it increasingly powerful and the archbishop became a member of the Council of State. norway, oslo, bjorvika district, barcode project, high-rise buildings - capital of norway stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images commuter walking on a bridge in the morning - capital of norway stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images  In the 1800s, by contrast, poverty and communicable diseases dominated in Norway together with famines and epidemics. The primary foreign language taught in Norwegian schools is English, considered an international language since the post-WWII era. This resurrected theory has received some pushback by other scholars on various grounds, e. g. the uncontroversial presence of the element norðr in the ethnonym norðrmaðr "Norseman, Norwegian person" (modern Norwegian nordmann), and the adjective norrǿnn "northern, Norse, Norwegian", as well as the very early attestations of the Latin and Anglo-Saxon forms with The classical music of the romantic composers Edvard Grieg, Rikard Nordraak and Johan Svendsen is internationally known, as is the modern music of Arne Nordheim. Foreign Policy magazine ranks Norway last in its Failed States Index for 2009, judging Norway to be the world's most well-functioning and stable country. As a result of the co-operation within the Nordic Council, inhabitants of all Nordic countries, including Iceland and Finland, have the right to communicate with Norwegian authorities in their own language.. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Many locals appreciate the ease with which they can escape the city almost … From the 1900s, improvements in public health occurred as a result of development in several areas such as social and living conditions, changes in disease and medical outbreaks, establishment of the health care system, and emphasis on public health matters. Norway has hosted the Games on two occasions: It also hosted the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics in Lillehammer, making Norway the first country to host both Winter regular and Youth Olympics. It is among the most expensive cities in the world.  According to a report by Dagens Næringsliv in June 2016, the country would like to ban sales of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles as early as 2025. From the 19th century up to the 1970s, the Norwegian government tried to assimilate both the Sámi and the Kven, encouraging them to adopt the majority language, culture and religion. The films Die Another Day, The Golden Compass, Spies Like Us and Heroes of Telemark, as well as the TV series Lilyhammer and Vikings also had scenes set in Norway. The most valuable minerals are calcium carbonate (limestone), building stone, nepheline syenite, olivine, iron, titanium, and nickel. He attacked London during this raiding. Norway's culinary traditions show the influence of long seafaring and farming traditions, with salmon (fresh and cured), herring (pickled or marinated), trout, codfish, and other seafood, balanced by cheeses (such as brunost), dairy products, and breads (predominantly dark/darker). Norway has a strong folk music tradition which remains popular to this day. Olav Tryggvason founded Nidaros, the city today known as Trondheim, in 997. The destruction of the Western Roman Empire by the Germanic peoples in the 5th century is characterised by rich finds, including tribal chiefs' graves containing magnificent weapons and gold objects. It consists of the Supreme Court of 20 permanent judges and a Chief Justice, appellate courts, city and district courts, and conciliation councils. The Parliament of Norway, called the Stortinget (meaning Grand Assembly), ratifies national treaties developed by the executive branch. He made his appeal to the labouring classes urging a change of social structure "from below upwards." These languages, for instance, were used on Norwegian passports until the 1990s, and university students have a general right to use these languages when submitting their theses. , According to tradition, Harald Fairhair unified them into one in 872 after the Battle of Hafrsfjord in Stavanger, thus becoming the first king of a united Norway. Dieserud, J.: Norse and Norseman versus Norwegian.  Even worse were the pirates, the "Victual Brothers", who launched three devastating raids on the port (the last in 1427). Which city holds the title of Norway's capital? Because of the Gulf Stream and prevailing westerlies, Norway experiences higher temperatures and more precipitation than expected at such northern latitudes, especially along the coast.  Among these approximately 189,000 are children of immigrants, born in Norway..  There was no strong bourgeosie class in Norway to demand a breakdown of this aristocratic control of the economy. After the 1994 referendum, Norway maintained its membership in the European Economic Area (EEA), an arrangement granting the country access to the internal market of the Union, on the condition that Norway implements the Union's pieces of legislation which are deemed relevant (of which there were approximately seven thousand by 2010) Successive Norwegian governments have, since 1994, requested participation in parts of the EU's co-operation that go beyond the provisions of the EEA agreement. By the end of the 11th century, when Norway had been Christianised, the indigenous Norse religion and practices were prohibited. We start way back in the days of the Vikings…. Students who are children of immigrant parents are encouraged to learn the Norwegian language. Vaccination and increased treatment opportunities with antibiotics resulted in great improvements within the Norwegian population. By referendums in 1972 and 1994, Norwegians rejected proposals to join the European Union (EU). A single party generally does not have sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a government on its own. , Most Norwegians are registered at baptism as members of the Church of Norway, which has been Norway's state church since its establishment. Civil society organisations also continue to play an important role, and the women's rights organisations are today organised in the Norwegian Women's Lobby umbrella organisation.  Norway includes the northernmost point on the European mainland. Norway is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world. Real power was wielded by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar Josef Terboven. Norway has two integral overseas territories: Jan Mayen and Svalbard, the only developed island in the archipelago of the same name, located miles away to the north. (Estimates suggest that about one third of the Norwegian Sámi speak a Sámi language.  and the Castberg Oil Field (Castberg-feltet)—calculated size 540 million barrels of oil, and 2 to 7 billion cubic feet (57 to 198 million cubic metres) (utvinnbar) of gas. In recent years the church has been granted increasing internal autonomy, but it retains its special constitutional status and other special ties to the state, and the constitution requires that the reigning monarch must be a member and states that the country's values are based on its Christian and humanist heritage.  This age was characterised by expansion and emigration by Viking seafarers.  Located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of Oslo, it is hub for the two major Norwegian airlines: Scandinavian Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle, and for regional aircraft from Western Norway. , From 1000 to 1300, the population increased from 150,000 to 400,000, resulting both in more land being cleared and the subdivision of farms.  Svalbard was not occupied by German troops. Based on the respective natural resources, Denmark–Norway was in fact a very good match since Denmark supported Norway's needs for grain and food supplies, and Norway supplied Denmark with timber, metal, and fish. Norway received Marshall Plan aid from the United States starting in 1947, joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) one year later, and became a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949. From 1945 to 1962, the Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament. At the time of the invasion, Norway had the fourth-largest merchant marine fleet in the world. In the 19th century, it inspired a strong romantic nationalistic movement, which is still visible in the Norwegian language and media. One of the most striking modern buildings in Norway is the Sámi Parliament in Kárášjohka, designed by Stein Halvorson and Christian Sundby. According to the Kainun institutti, "The typical modern Kven is a Norwegian-speaking Norwegian who knows his genealogy. Norwegian culture blossomed with nationalist efforts to achieve an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music. National and county roads are managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. Another possible interpretation is ‘the meadow beneath the ridge’. Yearly immigration has increased since 2005. The first line of this couplet is frequently quoted. In 1380, Olaf Haakonsson inherited both the Norwegian and Danish thrones, creating a union between the two countries. With increasing concern about assimilating immigrants, since 1 September 2008, the government has required that an applicant for Norwegian citizenship give evidence of proficiency in either Norwegian or in one of the Sámi languages, or give proof of having attended classes in Norwegian for 300 hours, or meet the language requirements for university studies in Norway (that is, by being proficient in one of the Scandinavian languages). Sports are a central part of Norwegian culture, and popular sports include association football, handball, biathlon, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, speed skating, and, to a lesser degree, ice hockey. Born sometime in between 963 and 969, Olav Tryggvasson set off raiding in England with 390 ships. Furthermore, women were then eligible for different occupations, particularly the common school teacher. Little has been found dating from the early Iron Age (the last 500 years BC). Spending from the fund is constrained by the budgetary rule (Handlingsregelen), which limits spending over time to no more than the real value yield of the fund, originally assumed to be 4% a year, but lowered in 2017 to 3% of the fund's total value. , There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway originally had the same etymology as the English form.  The hourly productivity levels, as well as average hourly wages in Norway, are among the highest in the world..  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